WASH service providers

In total 177 surveys of latrine service providers were carried out, at least one in each district. Sixty-two percent of surveys were conducted in rural areas and 38% in urban.

Type of work undertaken by latrine service providers


The graph above shows the type of work service providers undertake. Sixty-eight percent of those surveyed undertake more than one role in latrine service provision and for over half (59.9%) it is not in sanitation services that they get the most of their business income. The most popular type of work was constructing latrines (85.9%), followed by digging pit latrines (56.5%), improving or upgrading latrines (27.1%) and emptying latrines (6.2%). A fifth (20.5%) have been working in latrine services for less than five years, whereas just under half of those surveyed (43.5%) have more than 10 years’ experience. Half (49.7%) have received some training on sanitation services and half had not.

Customers of latrine service providers

Nearly all latrine service providers (92.7%) have private households as customers but schools, NGOs, private businesses and government are frequent customers. Most service providers (88.7%) stated that demand was highest in the dry season.

Reasons stated given by customers for building latrines

Challenges faced by latrine service provider’s businesses

This table shows the challenges service providers reported that their businesses face. It seems that government regulations do not represent a significant constraint as only 16.9% this affecting how they run or operate their business.